Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a language that expresses the presentation of structured documents written in a markup language, like HTML. Together with HTML and JavaScript, CSS is one of the technologies used on the World Wide Web.

CSS is designed to allow the separation between content and presentation, with the idea of reducing complexity.

How can CSS be used to interact with the DOM

The Document Object Model (DOM) is a programming interface representing a HTML page. Manipulating the DOM means changing the document structure, style, and content. The DOM represents the document as nodes and objects.

CSS syntax is relatively simple. Each sheet consists of a list of rules. Each rule contains one or more selectors and a declaration block.

A selector is used to define which part of the markup a style is applied to. A selector matches tags and or attributes of the markup document.

A declaration block consists of a list of properties and value, enclosed in braces.

By understanding how certain elements are styled, we can gather some information about the user, like the screen resolution and which browser (or engine) is used.

By using basic state information about an element it is also possible to detect when a user click on a link or hovers with the mouse over an element.

When can CSS be used instead of JavaScript

CSS can be used to style certain selector in a HTML page without having to resort to JavaScript.

Take the following dropdown button:

<div class="container">
  <div class="row">
    <div class="col">
      <div class="btn-group dropdown pull-right">
        <button type="button" class="btn btn-dark bg-dark drop dropdown-toggle btn-block my-3 my-sm-0" data-toggle="dropdown" aria-haspopup="true" aria-expanded="false">Dropdown button</button>
        <div class="dropdown-menu">
          <a class="dropdown-item" href="">Item A</a>
          <a class="dropdown-item" href="">Item C</a>
          <a class="dropdown-item" href="">Item D</a>
  display: block;

.dropdown-menu {
    margin: 0;
    display: none;

.dropdown:hover .dropdown-menu {
    display: block;
    overflow-y: scroll;
    max-height: 350px;

.dropdown .btn {
    border-radius: 0;

Test it out on jsfiddle

The button is extended from a normal bootstrap button. Only a few lines of CSS allow the button to work even when JS is disabled by using the interaction between the display property and the hoover state of the mouse over an element.

Another example is a classical hamburger menu expanding its content via JavaScript. The following snippets re-emplement the menu without JS.

<label for="nav-toggle">
  <a class="btn btn-lg btn-primary navbar-toggler text-white p-3" data-toggle="collapse" data-target="#navbarSupportedContent" aria-controls="navbarSupportedContent" aria-expanded="true" aria-label="Toggle navigation">
    Menu <span class="navbar-toggler-icon ml-1"></span>
<input id="nav-toggle" type="checkbox">
<div class="navbar-collapse hamburger-menu collapse show" id="navbarSupportedContent" style="">
  <div class="mx-auto">
    <ul class="navbar-nav">
      <li class="nav-item">
        <a class="nav-link" href="">Item A</a>
      <li class="nav-item">
        <a class="nav-link" href="">Item B</a>
      <li class="nav-item">
        <a class="nav-link" href="">Item C</a>

label {
  background: blue;
  cursor: pointer;

#nav-toggle {
  display: none; /* hide the checkbox */

#nav-toggle:checked + .hamburger-menu {
  display: block;

.navbar-toggler:hover .chevron-up {
    display: block !important;

.navbar-toggler:hover .chevron-down {
    display: none;

Try it out on jsfiddle

Avoiding complex scripts, or even minimizing the use of JavaScript, allows the page to load faster, making the website easier to load for mobile devices ad also preserving batter life.

Security concerns regarding user interactions tracking and CSS

There are various examples of state information present in css being exploited to track users on websites without using javascript [1].


  1. CrookedStyleSheets
  2. Tracking Users with CSS
  3. Content Security Policy